What is Coronavirus?

The Coronavirus is a group of viruses that can cause a variety of diseases in people including common cold and more severe like SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) and MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome), which are life-threatening. The virus is named after its shape, which appears as a crown with protrusions around it and thus is known as Coronavirus.

Where is it found?

Coronaviruses were first discovered in the 1930s when an acute respiratory infection of domesticated chickens was shown to be caused by IBV (Infectious Bronchitis Virus). Arthur Schalk and MC Hawn described in 1931 a new respiratory infection of chickens in North Dakota. The infection of new-born chicks was characterized by gasping and listlessness.

First Coronaviruses which were found in humans were  discovered in 1960s. The earliest ones studied were from human patients with the common cold, which were later named  Coronavirus 229E and  Coronavirus OC43. They were first imaged by Scottish virologist June Almeida at St. Thomas Hospital in London. Other Coronaviruses which have since been identified, include SARS-CoV in 2003, HCoV NL63 in 2004, HKU1 in 2005, MERS-CoV in 2012, and SARS-CoV-2 in 2019. Most of these have involved serious respiratory tract infections.

Coronaviruses are named because of the crown-like spikes on their surface. There are four main sub-groupings of coronaviruses, known as Alpha, Beta, Gamma, and Delta.

Kind of Coronavirus:-

 

(A) Common Coronaviruses found in humans

1. 229E (Alpha coronavirus)

2. NL63 (Alpha coronavirus)

3. OC43 (Beta coronavirus)

4. HKU1 (Beta coronavirus)

(B) Other Coronaviruses found in humans

5. MERS-CoV (the beta Coronavirus that causes Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, or MERS)

6. SARS-CoV (the beta Coronavirus that causes severe acute respiratory syndrome, or SARS)

7. SARS-CoV-2 (the novel Coronavirus that causes Coronavirus disease 2019, or COVID-19)

People around the world commonly get infected with human coronaviruses 229E, NL63, OC43, and HKU1.

Sometimes Coronaviruses that infect animals can evolve and make people sick and become a new human coronavirus. Three recent examples of this are 2019-nCoV, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV.

(COVID-19)

Corona virus illness (COVID-19) is an infectious disease effected about by a newly discovered corona virus.

Many people infected with the COVID-19 infection will encounter mellow to direct respiratory ailment and recover without requiring special treatment. Older people and those with basic clinical issues like cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, and cancer are more likely to develop serious illness.

The most ideal approach to prevent and slow down transmission is well informed about the COVID-19 virus, the sickness it causes and how it spreads. Shield yourself as well as other people from infection by washing your hands or using an alcohol based sanitizer rub frequently and not touch face and nose.

The COVID-19 virus spreads fundamentally through droplets of salivaor release from the nose when a contaminated person coughs or sneezes, so it’s significant that you also practice respiratory etiquette.

Right now, there are no particular vaccines or medicines for COVID-19. There are numerous progressing clinical trials assessing potential treatments.

COVID-19 symptoms include:-

1. Cough

2. Fever

3. Shortness of breath

4. Muscle throbs

5. Sore throat

6. Unexplained loss of taste or smell

7. Diarrhea

8. Headache

In uncommon cases, COVID-19 can prompt serious respiratory issues, kidney failure or death.

If you have a fever or any sort of respiratory trouble, for example, coughing or shortness of breath, call your primary care physician or a health care provider and clarify your side effects via telephone before setting off to the specialist’s office, urgent care facility or emergency room. Here are recommendations if you feel sick and are concerned you may have COVID-19.

Prevention

To prevent contamination and to slow transmission of COVID-19, do the following:-

1. Wash your hands regularly with soap and water, or clean them with liquor based hand rub.

2. Maintain 1 meter separation among you and individuals coughing or sneezing.

3. Avoid contacting your face.

4. Cover your mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing.

5. Stay home if you feel unwell.

6. Refrain from smoking and different exercises that weaken the lungs.

7. Avoiding unnecessary travel and gatherings.

Poonam Singh